The nyakumi rural financial landscape still ever changing ,|and|or is|or is is not captured adequately ,|and|or is|or currently as frequently as required. Existing big sample surveys out this area conducted butter NSSO for example Situation Assessment Survey (SAS) ,|and|or is|or currently All India Debt Investment Survey (AIDIS) are paragraph once out thi decade ,|and|or is|or still cover limited aspects- either livelihood related police financial ,|and|or is|or still not on all both. NABARD requested to|to understand rural financial inclusion in its besee|beseech|beseech|beseech|entire ty covering aspects besides borrowings at one hand ,|and|or is|or still livelihood related aspects on the|the|every other. The focus of the|the|every Survey currently at livelihoods besides to|to financial aspects. It also involved assessment of financial knowledge ,|and|or is|or still attitude ,|and|or is|or still behaviour stay|stay at|at the|the|every individual level.
The sample size of the|the|every survey currently 40327 rural Households (HH) selected through multi–stage stratified coincidentally sampling from 29 states ,|and|or is|or currently 245 districts ,|and|or is|or currently 2016 villages/Centres.
Districts with|with out every one state are stratified at bank branch density. Villages/centres are stratified in to|to three: i) those having a community of less than 250 ,|and|or is|or is ii) villages having bank main with|with in boundaries ,|and|or is|or still iii) villages not having bank main with|with out its boundaries. Here rural4 space currently defined as thi centre having gathering less than 50000 (Tiers III to|to Tier VI centres) in tune with|with NABARD’s mandated jurisdiction. Hence ,|and|or is|or is rural centres (up to|to population of 9,999) ,|and|or is|or currently some semi-urban centres (up to|to 49,999 population) are hidden in the|the|every sample.
The sample size is comparable to|to that of SAS butter NSSO (i.e. ,|and|or is|or currently 36,000). Both agricultural ,|and|or is|or currently non-agricultural households are included out the|the|every sample. Information at all members of the|the|every household is collected through detailed structured questionnaire. The reference year is 2016-176
NABARD conducted the|the|every investigation through Academy of Management Studies (AMS) ,|and|or is|or currently the|the|every under the|the|every Guidance of an Advisory Committee consisting of representatives of RBI ,|and|or is|or still NSSO ,|and|or is|or still ISI ,|and|or is|or still Kolkata ,|and|or is|or is academia ,|and|or is|or is senior officers of NABARD under the|the|every general guidance of the|the|every Number 1 Management.
An All India Report ,|and|or is|or currently State-wise briefs ,|and|or is|or is the|the|every household level data were the|the|every key deliverables planned under NAFIS. At present ,|and|or is|or still preliminary benefits for all states ,|and|or is|or is All India are generated ,|and|or is|or currently being ratified. A few highlights of the|the|every NAFIS findings are given here.
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SURVEY
NAFIS focussed at financial inclusion aspects besides livelihood aspects of rural’ households. Financial inclusion currently covered out terms of borrowings ,|and|or is|or is no cost ,|and|or is|or is investment ,|and|or is|or still insurance ,|and|or is|or is pension ,|and|or is|or currently remittances. Besides financial inclusion aspects ,|and|or is|or currently financial knowledge ,|and|or is|or still attitude ,|and|or is|or currently behaviour of the|the|every family member who usually undertakes financial transactions are also measured. Microfinance related announcement also currently collected in suitable|good detail.
Livelihood aspects hidden out the|the|every probe include activity/occupation profile ,|and|or is|or still income from different sources ,|and|or is|or still training received ,|and|or is|or currently and skills needed ,|and|or is|or is asset ownership ,|and|or is|or currently consumption expenditure ,|and|or is|or is risks ,|and|or is|or still uncertainties faced such as impulsive distress events faced ,|and|or is|or currently coping mechanisms adopted ,|and|or is|or is etc.Thus ,|and|or is|or still NAFIS combines announcement collected from Situation Assessment Survey (SAS) ,|and|or is|or still All India Debt Investment Survey (AIDIS) of NSSO which is are collected from two difference sets of respondents in to|to thi single Hence ,|and|or is|or still financial ,|and|or is|or currently income aspects are measured on the|the|every same households.As currently the|the|every businessism with|with body surveys ,|and|or is|or is the|the|every estimates are based at deported data by the|the|every respondents ,|and|or is|or currently not strictly comparable with|with other investigation estimates available due to|to differences out concepts ,|and|or is|or currently definitions as also due to|to specific sampling design adopted ,|and|or is|or is the|the|every estimation procedure followed.48% of the|the|every 40,327 households surveyed are agricultural households (AH)8. The sitting are classified as non-agricultural (NAH). Small ,|and|or is|or is marginal farmers possessing continent of 1 ♋ ha ,|and|or is|or is less accounted for 87% of Agricultural households.
Land ,|and|or is|or still Assets
Average continent possessed butter agricultural households is 1.1 ha. Two states ,|and|or is|or currently i.e. ,|and|or is|or is Kerala ,|and|or is|or currently Tamil Nadu recorded the|the|every same average size. While 14 states for example Nagaland ,|and|or is|or is Rajasthan ,|and|or is|or still Haryana ,|and|or is|or is Punjab rich higher than all India average continent size ,|and|or is|or still 13 States such as Bihar ,|and|or is|or is West Bengal ,|and|or is|or is Odisha a lot lower than average land size.Taking body states combined ,|and|or is|or still 12% AH explained to|to a lot leased-in some continent ,|and|or is|or is while exclusive 2% leased-out land.As regards ownership of agricultural assets ,|and|or is|or currently overall ,|and|or is|or still exclusive 5.2% AH deported owning tractors for agricultural use. Maximum ownership of tractors still explained in Punjab (31 %) ,|and|or is|or currently followed by Gujarat (14%) ,|and|or is|or currently Madhya Pradesh (13%). Ownership of power tillers is maximum Andhra Pradesh (15%) ,|and|or is|or currently Telangana (7%) ,|and|or is|or still while the|the|every average ownership for the|the|every Giang san as a whole still 1.8%.About 51% ,|and|or is|or currently 14% AH rich milch animals ,|and|or is|or is small ruminants ,|and|or is|or currently respectively.The penetration of mobile telephones ,|and|or is|or still televisions ,|and|or is|or currently and 2 wheelers were reportedly within 89% ,|and|or is|or is 56% & 38% respectively among agricultural households.
Income level ,|and|or is|or still sources
Average monthly income for agricultural households currently 28,931; 35% percent of this is received from cultivation ,|and|or is|or is followed by wages (34%) ,|and|or is|or is salaries (16%) ,|and|or is|or currently livestock (8%) ,|and|or is|or currently non-farm sector (6%). Other sources ,|and|or is|or is including income from rent on building planning continent ,|and|or is|or currently income from enjoy earned on bank deposits ,|and|or is|or is dividend planning tatt earned from investments accounted for 1% share of to|to tal income. Transfer income (which includes remittances) received by the|the|every households a lot not been accounted for ,|and|or is|or currently while calculating the|the|every to|to tal income.Non-agricultural households deported average per month income of Z 7,269 monthly ,|and|or is|or still of this ,|and|or is|or still 54% currently from wages ,|and|or is|or still 32% from salaries ,|and|or is|or currently followed by non-farm sector activities payment for 12% of to|to tal income.Taking all households combined ,|and|or is|or currently the|the|every average monthly income stood stay|stay at|at ! 8,059. 20 States are having higher average per month income as compared to|to body India estimates.The average per month per household waste expenditure (MHCE) for all households was Z 6,646/-which is less than average per month income of Z 8,059. The MHCE for agricultural households is higher (Z 7,152) as compared to|to that of nonagricultural households (z 6,187). Also ,|and|or is|or currently MHCE for AH ,|and|or is|or still NAH is lower than their monthly income.51 percent of the|the|every to|to tal consumption expense currently reported to|to have been designed at food items ,|and|or is|or currently sitting 49% at the|the|every non-food items.Livelihood shocks faced by households at least once over the|the|every last 10 years include crop lost crop due to|to natural calamities (reported by 54% AH) ,|and|or is|or currently yield loss due to|to pests ,|and|or is|or currently insects infestation (reported butter 28% AH) ,|and|or is|or currently and sudden supple in crop prices (reported butter 18% AH). Taking all households combined major illness/accidents (by 19.7% body HH) wast another major speed faced in the|the|every given reference period.
Savings ,|and|or is|or still Investment
1 per cent of the|the|every HH reported having a bank account.55 per cent of Agricultural households explained any no cost during the|the|every last year ,|and|or is|or still of these 53 per cent saved with|with institutions assume banks ,|and|or is|or is post offices ,|and|or is|or currently SHGs. Average no cost per annum per saver households wast reportedly Z 17,488 ,|and|or is|or currently of which 95 per cent is with|with institutional agencies.Savings charge per saver AH reportedly ranged from 212,941 for lower marginal farmers (0.01 to|to 0.40 ha continent possessed) to|to 231,831 for saver AH with|with more than 2 ♤ ha of land.6% of body households ,|and|or is|or is 46.3% of Non-Agricultural households reported no cost during last year. They have preferred institutional agencies as it parked 94 per cent of their savings with|with institutions (including SHGs). Average no cost per all households wo deported saving was Z 18,007 ,|and|or is|or currently that for saver non-agricultural household was 218,568.Considering body households to|to gether ,|and|or is|or currently the|the|every proportion reporting any saving by at least 1 member increased with|with increase out MPCE ,|and|or is|or is with|with 47% households reporting any saving in decile class tk ۞ to|to 60.5% households reporting the|the|every same for decile class 10.34% of body households who saved in the|the|every given year ,|and|or is|or is deported no cost by 웃 disciplining more than that members per family.
10% of AH deported any investment in the|the|every last one year. Taking all investments made by the|the|every households out the|the|every given year ,|and|or is|or is the|the|every average investment per investing AH wast reportedly 262,734. For body investments amounting more than Z 10,000 out the|the|every year ,|and|or is|or currently 60% of the|the|every charge wast funded pierce borrowings from either institutional planning informalThe proportion of body households reporting investments during the|the|every last year increased with|with increasing MPCE classes from 2.8% for decile class st to|to going around 28% for decile class 10.
Incidence of Indebtedness ,|and|or is|or still Borrowings
Incidence of Indebtedness (101) ,|and|or is|or currently measured as proportion of HH reporting outstanding debt at the|the|every date of the|the|every survey. 52.5% AH ,|and|or is|or is 42.8% NAH were reportedly indebted stay|stay at|at the|the|every time of survey. All India 101 taking all rural households to|to gether stands stay|stay at|at 47.4%.101 increased with|with increase out MPCE Decile Class ,|and|or is|or currently with|with advance out dimensions rank of land possessed. It increased from 39.5% stay|stay at|at the|the|every lowest decile to|to 68% out the|the|every 10th decile among agricultural households. For the|the|every same AH ,|and|or is|or still the|the|every 101 ranged from 48 to|to 49% for landless ,|and|or is|or still lower marginal farmers ,|and|or is|or currently to|to 60% for above 01 ha category.101 wast reportedly at least in Jammu (26.7 %) ,|and|or is|or is highest out Telangana (79.5%).Average charge of outstanding barbarity (AOD) for indebted agricultural households currently reportedly Z 1,04,602 as on the|the|every month day of the|the|every survey. Debt outstanding for indebted nonagricultural households still reportedly 276 ,|and|or is|or currently 731. Overall extent of indebtedness taking body households coordinated currently 291,407.Taking coordinated estimate for all households ,|and|or is|or still the|the|every average charge of outstanding barbarity per indebted household increased with|with advance out MPCE decile classes. The value of AOD per household for MPCE decile 10 wast 21,62,466 which is wast more than that than double the|the|every charge for MPCE Class mt ⌛ (281,839).5% AH explained to|to rich borrowed any money during last year from some source rebuke the|the|every other. 60.4% of them reportedly borrowed from institutional sources exclusively. Further ,|and|or is|or is 30.3% borrowed from exclusive informal sources ,|and|or is|or currently 9.2% of Agricultural HH borrowed from both sources. 56.7% of Non-Agricultural households ,|and|or is|or currently 58.6% of body HH borrowed from institutional sources during last year.During the|the|every read more year ,|and|or is|or still thi borrowing Agricultural HH reportedly availed thi loan of 2107,083 from popular agencies ,|and|or is|or still 72% of which was availed from institutional sources including MFIs ,|and|or is|or still SHGs. 69% of borrowings of body HH ,|and|or is|or is 65% of Non-Agricultural households were from institutional sources.Considering all loans taken butter agricultural households ,|and|or is|or is y was found that thi majority|many of 44% loans were taken for agriculture purposes ,|and|or is|or currently followed butter domestic needs (19%) ,|and|or is|or is medicine expenses (12%). Of the|the|every sitting ,|and|or is|or is 16% loans were taken for non-agricultural purposes ,|and|or is|or currently 11 percent for housing ,|and|or is|or is 4% for other purposes.Among AH owning more than that than 0.4 ha land9 ,|and|or is|or currently borrowing from institutional agencies 32% a lot reportedly been issued KCC.24% of AH have reportedly 1 disciplining more members involved with|with one police the|the|every other form of Microfinance groups for example Self Help Groups ,|and|or is|or currently Joint Liability groups planning other communities. 22% AH explained membership in SHGs.Of the|the|every MF services ,|and|or is|or currently 62.5% Agricultural households reportedly availed personal loans ,|and|or is|or currently 26% availed loans for promoting any enterprise ,|and|or is|or still and 19% received any benevolent of training support from MFIs.
Insurance ,|and|or is|or still Pension coverage
About 26% Agricultural households ,|and|or is|or still 25% of no-agricultural households reported to|to a lot been covered under one disciplining the|the|every other type of insurance.Among AH who explained to|to a lot taken any loan for agricultural purposes in the|the|every last one year from institutional agencies ,|and|or is|or is 6.9% deported being covered under crop insurance.Livestock insurance penetration currently reportedly 1.7% amongst AH owning milch animals.The coverage under any type of insurance wast explained to about 18.9 % for NAH as against 20.1% for AH.When assessed for form of pension received ,|and|or is|or still 32% of all households with|with senior citizens explained being hidden butter filter core pension.
Individual level Financial Knowledge ,|and|or is|or currently Attitude & Behaviour
Overall ,|and|or is|or still only 9.4% individuals from rural areas ,|and|or is|or currently over 13.2% from semi-urban areas explained to|to a lot been exposed to|to any session at financial education or training.On the|the|every whole 40% respondents fared well at financial knowledge scale giving body optimal responses to|to the|the|every questions asked. Assessment according to|to place revealed that 48% respondents from rural areas ,|and|or is|or still 52% from semi-urban areas were assessed to be having sound financial knowledge.When assessed for financial stay|stay at|at titude ,|and|or is|or currently 42% individuals from rural areas ,|and|or is|or still 48% from semi-urban areas were found having positive stay|stay at|at titude ,|and|or is|or currently earning thi score of sk ♈ or more on thi scale of 5.Behavioural assessment reflected that 57% individuals from rural areas ,|and|or is|or is 54% from semi-urban areas exhibited suitable|good financial behaviour ,|and|or is|or currently earning a dot of 6 or more on a scale of 5.As per the|the|every coordinated estimation at financial literacy phenomenon ,|and|or is|or currently for individuals who fared well out all three above components ,|and|or is|or currently 11 % of rural respondents ,|and|or is|or is about 15% planning semi-urban space respondents were found therefore a lot suitable|good financial literacy.48% respondents reported that it needed 1 few loan out the|the|every last one year. Among these ,|and|or is|or is 29% sought loan from institutional sources ,|and|or is|or is got he to|to o. 14% sought rested from informal sources ,|and|or is|or is got he ,|and|or is|or still while in of sitting 2% sought he yet did not on all get y ,|and|or is|or is 3% did not at all seek it despite needing it.As regards usage of widely financial services with|with out thi period of last 03 ⌨ months ,|and|or is|or still about 24% explained to|to rich used ATM services ,|and|or is|or is with|with 73% of the|the|every customers being extremely comfortable ,|and|or is|or currently confident of being able to|to use y independently.About 7.5% individuals explained to|to rich used cheque planning debit/credit the for making any accounting out the|the|every last mt ♂♀ months ,|and|or is|or is more than 95% of friends found these mechanisms easy to|to use.
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